Sri Rudram- Meanings- Anuvaka 4- Mantras 13-17

Mantra  13

नमः कुलालेभ्यः कर्मारेभ्यश्च वो नमः ।


To you, of the form of potters and blacksmiths, prostration.

Mantra  14

नमः पुञ्जिष्टेभ्यो निषादेभ्यश्च वो नमः ।


To you, of the form of those who catch birds and fishermen catching fish, prostration.

Mantra  15

नम इषुकृद्भ्यो धन्वकृद्भ्यश्च वो नमः ।


To you, of the form of good fabricators of arrows and bows, prostration.

Mantra  16

नमो मृगयुभ्यः श्वनिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।


To you, of the form of hunters of animals, and those who hold dogs, chained in neck, prostration.

Mantra  17

नमः श्वभ्यः श्वपतिभ्यश्च वो नमः ।


To you, of the form of dogs, and protectors of dogs, prostration.


Sayana bhashyam (commentary) states that the second Anuvakam starting with ‘ Namo Hiranyabaahave ’ is meant primarily to worship the many forms assumed sportingly by Parameswara; the third Anuvakam starting with ‘Namas sahamaanaaya’  is aimed mainly at adoring the forms of thieves taken by Parameswara; this fourth Anuvakam starting with ‘Nama Aavyaadinibhya:’ draws attention to the many animal forms assumed by Sri Parameswara.

It was described in the 26 mantras starting with ‘Ishumadbhya:’ that Sri Parameswara alone has taken the form of the entire universe with living and non-living beings. His being the soul of all creation is going to be described in the mantras from ‘Namo Jyeshthaya cha’ (6th Anuvakam). This goes to establish ‘Sivaadvaitam’ (Principle that there is nothing other than Siva), i.e. ‘Atmaadvaitam’ (Principle that there is nothing other than Soul). That Atma (Soul) possesses ‘Samasta chetanaadvaitam’ (Principle of uniquely pervading all living beings) is established by many authoritative passages like ‘Aham Brahmaasmi’, ‘Tattvamasi’ etc. It has been explained in detail in ‘Brahma Mimamsa’ that since Atma is the sub-stratum of all superimposed non-living objects and since sub-stratum alone is the true form of the superimposed object, as shown in ‘Suktirajata’, Atma possesses also ‘Samasta Achetanaadvaitam’ (Principle that Atma is nothing other than all non-living objects).

As ‘Sarvaadvaitam’ (Principle of all in one Atma) has thus been established and as the import of this passage is that alone, there is no scope for doubting as to how Sruti could teach the unity of the Supreme Iswara with lowly creatures like dog and hunter. For the terms ‘svabhya:’, ‘svapatibhya:’ etc., the meaning is not that the bodies of dog and Parameswara are the same. The meaning however is that the consciousness pervading in the dog’s body and the consciousness in Parameswara is the same. It must be understood that if the term ‘sva’ means the body of dog, the intent is the consciousness, which is the sub-stratum and not the dog’s body, which is superimposed. In the Sun, reflected in Ganga and ponds, Ganga’s holiness or the defect of liquor does not attach to it. Similarly, in the Consciousness of Self pervading the bodies of lowly creatures like dog, the defects of lowly creatures or the goodness of higher creatures does not attach to it. This is borne out in the Gita sloka,

‘विद्याविनयसंपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि ।

शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः ॥‘

(‘The wise have equal outlook with a brahmana endowed with learning and humility, a cow, an elephant, a dog and the eater of dog’s flesh.)

And other passages like

‘किं गङगाम्बुनि बिम्बितेम्बरमणौ चण्डालवापीपयः-

पूरेष्यन्तरमस्ति काञ्चनघटीमृत्कुम्भयोश्चान्तरे ॥‘.

(‘Is there any difference between the Sun’s image reflected in the waters of Ganga and in the pond of a chandala? Is there any difference between the space inside a golden pot and that in a clay pot?’).

For this fourth Anuvaka containing 14 mantras, Rishi is Durvasa; chandas is Mahavirat; Devata is Sambhu.


‘भस्मोद्धूलितसर्वाङ्गं जटामण्डलमण्डितम् ।

ध्यायेद्देवं वृषारूढं गणेश्वरयुतं हरम् ॥‘

‘One must meditate on Hara, who has Vibhuti (bhasma-sacred ash) smeared all over the body, decorated with tuft of matted hair, accompanied by Ganesvara and mounted on Vrishabha.’

Chanting of this mantra is capable of granting relief from severe diseases like tuberculosis, fever, special fever related to humours, leprosy etc.


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