Sri Rudram- Anuvaka 3- Meanings- Mantras- 1 to 5

Mantra  1

नमस्सहमानाय निव्याधिन आव्याधिनीनां पतये नमः ।


सहमानाय-    To one who subdues enemies, or bears devotees’ faults,       निव्याधिने-   capable of striking enemies well,      आव्याधिनीनां-   of armies, capable of facing and striking all,          पतये-  to Parameswara, the lord of,  नमः-   prostration.


Like in the second Anuvakam, here in the third Anuvakam also, Parameswara is worshipped as the Supreme Lord in the first eight Yajurmnatras. For the term ‘Aavyaadhininam pataye’ meaning the lord of valorous armies, the two adjectives ‘sahamanaya’ and ‘nivyadhine’ explain the reason. Is it not natural that Parameswara, who subdues and rules over all and strikes the enemies, is the lord of valorous armies? Though he is the head of valorous armies and strikes the enemies, when it comes to his devotees, he ignores their faults and bestows his grace; this is conveyed by the adjective ‘sahamanaya’.

Mantra  2

नमः ककुभाय निषङ्गिणे स्तेनानां पतये नमः ।


ककुभाय-   the best (among thieves),    निषङ्गिणे-  holding sword in the hand,     स्तेनानाम्-   of thieves, who steal stealthily,   पतये-   to the Lord,  नमः-    prostration.  (स्तेन:- thief, who steals stealthily;         तस्कर:-  robber, who steals openly.)


Parameswara, the lord of all, is also the lord of thieves. That does not cause any blemish to him.  Sri Parameswara pervades the bodies of persons like thieves in the form of Jiva and Easwara. Of them, it is the form of Jivatma of thieves, which is reviled in Sastras. That the all-pervasive Paramatma also pervades the bodies of thieves is what is conveyed through descriptions like ‘Sthenaanam pataye’ etc. The import is that mediation on Parameswara in that manner also leads to accrual of merit.

Alternatively, the import could be that Parameswara, who is kind to devotees, being the lord of thieves also, rids them of their sins and protects them, if they surrender to him.

This should not be interpreted to mean that Parameswara is omnipotent and hence is also the best of thieves and steals others’ property.

Mantra  3

नमो निषङ्गिण इषुधिमते तस्कराणां पतये नमः ।


निषङ्गिणे-   Holding arrow in hand for stringing in the bow,     इषुधिमते-   having quiver of arrows,  तस्कराणां-     of robbers, who steal openly,  पतये-  to Parameswara, the lord of,   नमः-   prostration.


In the previous mantra, the term ‘nishanga’ was interpreted to mean sword. Here the term ‘nishanga’ has been interpreted as arrow held in hand for stringing in the bow. Another meaning based on the etymology नितरां+ सङ्गी = तस्मै, very kind to devotees, has also been given. But in the context of तस्कराणां पतये, this meaning does not seem appropriate.

Mantra  4

नमो वञ्चते परिवञ्चते स्तायूनां पतये नमः ।


वञ्चते-   In the form of one who cheats the master and steals his material sometimes, being his confidante,  परिवञ्चते- also in the form of one who cheats the master at all times and in all matters, स्तायूनां-    of people associating as confidante and yet stealing without others’ knowledge,  पतये-   to Parameswara, the lord of,    नमः-  prostration.


One who comes from outside and steals at night without anybody knowing it is ‘Sthena:’. One who is with the master and yet steals any time, either in day or at night, with nobody knowing it is ‘Sthayu’. वञ्चन्-  One who is confidante of the master, but cheats and steals some things at some times.  परिवञ्चन्- One who cheats in all matters and at all times.



Mantra  5

नमो निचेरवे परिचरायरण्यानां पतये नमः ।


निचेरवे-    One who moves about in the master’s house with alertness for stealing things,  or, one who moves about in forest along with thieves,    परिचराय-     one who moves about in marketplace etc. for stealing things,   आरण्यानां-    of thieves who are in the forests,    पतये-    to Parameswara, who is lord of,  नमः-  prostration.


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